Novel started in the late 17th and early 18th century. Before 18th century, novel does not exist. The fact is that novel is actually written for “Middle class”. Middle class people did not understand the language of poetry therefore, novel as another medium or genre started only for middle class section, because this particular section was less educated in compare to the upper section.
Samuel Richardson first explore the social and domestic life through his novel “Pamela”, which is based on female chastity. Pamela became the most preferred work by church because it gives a religious message. His another work ‘Clarissa: The History of Young Lady’ (1748) was renown novel. Richardson was not a professional writer, so he used very easy and simple language to make people understand.
In response to ‘Pamela’, Henry Fielding wrote a novel called ‘Joseph Andreus’ which is also based on male chastity.
However, critics were not influenced by the theme of novel because according to them novel is waste of time, they also said that the novel written during this particular period is not productive, and most importantly it does not contribute to the country’s development.
Therefore, the rise of the novel as an important literary genre is actually linked with the growth and understanding of Middle Class in England.
Writers who contributed with different genre of novel
- Early English Novelist of 18th century Danial Defoe wrote first realistic novel
- Samuel Richardson wrote first Burgeois sentimental novel
- Laurence Sterne wrote 1st Experimental novel
- Henry Fielding wrote 1st comic novel
Therefore, 18th century novel highlighted with “Realism and individual consciousness”.
Don Quixote (1612) is a novel. It is a mixture of fantasy and reality, which really influences the other novelist. Don Quixote keep the foundation of English novel.
All the writers of this period play huge role to enhance novel and influence the novelist.
Difference types of novel
- ‘Robinson crusoe’ by Daniel Defoe (1719) was Realist novel.
- ‘Pamela’ by Richardson (1740) was an Epistolary novel.
- ‘Gulliver’s Travels’ by swift (1726) was Philosophic/satire.
- ‘Tom Jones’ by Henry Fielding was epic/ comic novel.
- ‘Tristram Shandy’ by Stern (1759) was experimental novel.
Robinson Crusoe and Pamela were Buildungsroman novel,
Epistolary means the novel which is written is a form a letter.
Who is the father of English literature novel?
Henry Fielding is supposed to be the father of English novel.
Who started the trend of writing novel?
Daniel Defoe and Moll Flanders started the trend of writing of novel.
19th century Novelist
- Charles Dickens novelist of (Great Expectations)
- George Eliot (Middlemarch)
- George Meredith (The Egoist)
- Henry James (The Turn of the Screw)
Thomas Hardy was the novelist of late 19th century.
20th century Novelist
- James Joyce (Ulysses)
- Virginia Wolf (A Room of One’s Own)
- Dorothy Richardson (Pilgrimage)
- George Orwell (Animal Farm)
- E.M Forster (The Passage to India)
Who was the most renown novelist of all time?
Sir Walter Scott was not only successful but popular novelist, apart from him Jane Austen, George Orwell, Henry Fielding James Joyce etc.
Jane Austen was one of the most popular novelist, because of her subject which was majorly based on middle class women of English society.