It is a term discussed by German philosopher Karl Marx and sociologist Friedrich Engels in a concept called Marxism.

According to Karl Marx a foundation is a structure and something emerges from that foundation will be superstructure. He says that the structure is a “condition of existence” and without ‘it’ (structure) it’s not possible to discuss or explain superstructure.

According to Marxist theory in a society there will be base and superstructure and both are key concept for the structure of human society. He further states that superstructure is totally man- made in which strong component of nature e.g. inanimate and animate existed. Whereas base e.g. structure manifests the planned collective labor of men women under a framework. Therefore, superstructure is evolved to interrupt, explain and justify the distribution of social surplus.

According to Marx, the way people fight for their survival in the base they become more conscious of its nature in their mind and which constitute the area of superstructure. He argues that why only a small section of society should enjoy ownership of wealth and resources while large section of people lives at the subsistence level.

The base and superstructure are the two interrupted concepts in which Karl Marx describes base as the means of production like; material and resources that helps to produce goods which society needs, whereas superstructure as all other aspects of society like religion, art, law, ideology, norms and so on, it also includes social, political and government institutions. Thus, the base and superstructure shapes and maintain each other

Marx argues that superstructure always reflects the “ruling class” beliefs and interests. Thus, superstructure is no doubt is the part of society that always ‘legitimizes’ base where the exploitation of the proletariat or working class.

Base is occupied by the bourgeoiswhich consists of the elements like means of production e.g. land, factories, raw materials etc. it also forms the relationships between the capitalize and working class.

Therefore, all elements that consists of culture are appropriate for the capitalist to establish their authority.

The base and superstructure theory appeared in Marx’s Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (1859).

The need and process of standardization of language

What do you mean by standard language?

Standard language defined as an official form of language, which has undergone substantial regularization and is associated with formal schooling language assessment.

What is the process of standardization of a language?

Standardization is a process in which language is standardized for its linguistic forms as well as social communicative function of language.

In other words, A language becomes standard through a process called standardization, it is mainly done by governments authority. It generally needs some well- prepared and systemic steps and procedures.

For ex: “tribal language” of a group of some race in certain country like Indonesia has been standardized. Standardization is the key word  for the modern period.

Some events which played important, role in changing and that is,

  1. Renaissance was the first period making changes
  2. Industrial Revolution.
  3. Migration and Settlement in land like; USA, Australia Canada and New Zealand.
  4. Imperial colonization of Asian and African lands.

Standardization is much more concerned with the written language I, e lexical, morphological and syntactical rother than the spoken language, for instance phonological long feathers.

Need for standardization of language

  • The standardization of a language is needed to show the identity and integrity of a nation.
  • A language of a nation should be standardization to get its formality.
  • It needed to allow the language to serve as a model for everyone in the community to agree upon in order to communicate.
  • Having a common, mutually comprehensible language unifies the member of a community.
  • It also needed to reflect and symbolize some kind of identity and sometimes it can be used ton give prestige to speakers.
  • It is needed to make the language easier to teach in school or institution.

Therefore, the standardization of a language we can say that are helpful for a nation or world and it basically provides flexibility between the nations.     

The Process of standardization:-

Standardization is necessary and vital process for any language. According to (2004) linguist’s approach, standardization have often concentrated on the identification of the regional and or social dialects, which form the phonological, morphological and syntactic basis of standard of language.

Standardization process needs some interrelated steps. According (Holmes-2001) it should follow few steps like;

  1. Selection: Choosing the variety or coded to be developed.
  2. Codification: Standardization its structural or linguistic features.
  3. Elaboration: Extended its functions for use on new domain.
  4. Securing its acceptance: Enhancing its prestige for instance, encourage people to develop pride in the language or loyalty towards it.

Not only these, but the process also involves the development of such things as grammars, spellings books, and dictionaries and possibly a literature.

This definition has two main features,

(I) written language, it is the representation of a language by means of writing system, and

(II) regularization, it is to make a certain language that already exist legally official.

Therefore, standard language is a particular language, which is correct, acceptable and used by most people. It is much more related to the written language which involves the feature of Orthopological i.e. the system of spelling in a language; Morphological i.e. the form of words and phrase put together to form sentence in a language.

Features of language which should be standardized:

  1. Grammar :- The rules in a language for changing the form of words and joining them into a sentence.
  2. Spelling :- The act of forming words correctly from individual letters.
  3. Word :- A single unit of language, a particular word or sound which can be spoken or written.
  4. Pronunciation :– A particular way in which a word or sound should be make or pronounced.
  5. System of writing:- The way in which books, letters, articles, posters, notices and other forms of scientific writing are written down.


Therefore, as we have discussed about the standardization i.e. why and how a language should be standardized and by which process? So, the language is that language is much more than a system of communication. It is a symbol of a nation that distinguishes each and every country and their people.

How to write assignments?

Well assignment is something that everyone wants to write too perfectly to score good marks. I am going to highlight some important points and factors which will help you to prepare your perfect assignment, you surely will achieve good score.

Before writing assignments

  • Read the question carefully, understand the meaning of the question
  • Go through the chapters on which the question is based
  • Make some points, highlight key words, and phrase etc.
  • Write down your answers roughly and arrange them in logical order
  • Do not copy the same from text book and from any other source material
  • Be a little more selective and analytic
  • Give adequate attention of your introduction and conclusion (this is important part as it provides brief detail)
  • Introduction must offer your brief interpretation to the questions
  • Summarize your response in Conclusion
  • If necessary, add some reference from other text books and critics

Points to Remember:


  • be in logical and coherent
  • have clear connections between sentences
  • written correctly, giving adequate consideration
  • have proper expression, style and presentation
  • not exceed the maximum word limit that is indicated in your question
  • be neat and clean
  • have highlight the key points you wish to emphasize

How to prepare notes

What is note making?

Note making is the process to highlight or write down all the important words or sentence by a listener or reader in their own words. It is a process to review the lectures and synthesize the whole topic.

Note making is specifically helpful for those students who can not learn long question/ answers or a paragraph.

Why to make notes

  • Note making helps to memorize all the important points
  • To refresh our memory about what we read in past
  • To prepare for exams

How to make Notes

  • Notes should be short and clear
  • Only relevant facts should be highlighted
  • Only word and phrases should be used
  • Important points should be written in a systematic way
  • Notes should be divided into heading and sub headings

Now the question is, how should divisions and sub divisions should be like;

  • Main sections – 1, 2, 3 etc.
  • Sub- sections –  a, b, c etc.
  • Sub- sub sections – (i), (ii), (iii) etc.

However, In the process of Note making short forms and symbols should be used. Do not create confusion. The minimum number of abbreviations expected are 6 to 10. A key to abbreviations must be given at the end of the Note making.