It is a term discussed by German philosopher Karl Marx and sociologist Friedrich Engels in a concept called Marxism.

According to Karl Marx a foundation is a structure and something emerges from that foundation will be superstructure. He says that the structure is a “condition of existence” and without ‘it’ (structure) it’s not possible to discuss or explain superstructure.

According to Marxist theory in a society there will be base and superstructure and both are key concept for the structure of human society. He further states that superstructure is totally man- made in which strong component of nature e.g. inanimate and animate existed. Whereas base e.g. structure manifests the planned collective labor of men women under a framework. Therefore, superstructure is evolved to interrupt, explain and justify the distribution of social surplus.

According to Marx, the way people fight for their survival in the base they become more conscious of its nature in their mind and which constitute the area of superstructure. He argues that why only a small section of society should enjoy ownership of wealth and resources while large section of people lives at the subsistence level.

The base and superstructure are the two interrupted concepts in which Karl Marx describes base as the means of production like; material and resources that helps to produce goods which society needs, whereas superstructure as all other aspects of society like religion, art, law, ideology, norms and so on, it also includes social, political and government institutions. Thus, the base and superstructure shapes and maintain each other

Marx argues that superstructure always reflects the “ruling class” beliefs and interests. Thus, superstructure is no doubt is the part of society that always ‘legitimizes’ base where the exploitation of the proletariat or working class.

Base is occupied by the bourgeoiswhich consists of the elements like means of production e.g. land, factories, raw materials etc. it also forms the relationships between the capitalize and working class.

Therefore, all elements that consists of culture are appropriate for the capitalist to establish their authority.

The base and superstructure theory appeared in Marx’s Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (1859).

‘Time and Temporality’ in Spencer’s Epithalamion and Prothalamion?

In history of English literature ‘Epithalamion’ and ‘Prothalamion’ both are the most important work of Edmund Spenser. ‘Epithalamion’ by Spenser is an ‘ode’, a wedding poem which deals with the celebration of marriage. Whereas, the ‘Prothalamion’ is a spousal verse written on the occasion of the wedding of Elizabeth and Catherine Somerset (daughters of Edward Somerset) “The Earl of Worcester”.

Therefore, “Time and Temporality” has an essential difference in both the work as according to Spencer physical love is a love that is meant to be exhausted with the time, i.e. the state of existing within or having some relationship with time. whereas religious love is unending, so the physical love is defined as temporality and so on.

Also, time refers in Epithalamion as when ancient Greek God used to sing poems and songs at the wedding, whereas, time in Prothalamion refers to the date back in to 1596 when Spencer wrote innovative poems.

The Prelude

(by Willian Wordsworth)

‘The prelude’ is an autobiographical journey of poet himself (Willian Wordsworth), it was a semi-autobiography which was published after his demise in 1850, by Mary Hutchinson. The Prelude: The Growth of people’s mind was written between 1799-1805. 

The Prelude has 14 books in which the poet describes about growth of poetic mind and soul, actually, Wordsworth wanted to write an Epic poem because his fellow contemporary S.T. Coleridge has requested for it. Therefore, this long poem which consist 7883 blank verse line is an Epic of a special type. Its story is in the account of growth of a Spirit, the development of an awareness, and the evolution of sensitive mind. It is the longest poem of Wordsworth’s career.

The Prelude consist Wordsworth’s child hood and adulthood. All the incidents during his childhood to adulthood happened covered in these 14 books.

Book 1-11 The first book title is childhood & school the poet talks about his childhood when he lived in Lake district and involved in many natural activities like Booting, fishing all these has left a great on poet’s mind this book covers the age of 10-17 years of poet Book-3 covers his story, when he used to live in Cambridge. He shares his experience while studying at Cambridge, he says that he does not want to be a scholar.

Book-4 In this book he shares his summer vacation Experience with friends.

Book-5 It Covers the poet’s interests towards books, the poet says that he is taking interest in studying very popular authors and writers like; Shakespeare, Milton etc.

Book-6 This book covers his loneliness of university life. Wordsworth says that how nature was helpful when he was feeling lonely during this particular time.

The poet also says that the next summer vacation has started and he spent some memorable moments with his sister Dorothy and friend Mary Hutchinson.

In this book poet describe the Experience of IIIrd summer vacation and a tour. He also completed his graduation during this time.

Book-7 In this book the poet tells how he reached London along with his B.A. Degree and altogether describes the life of London.

Book-8 This is one of the important books because the poet surveys about his maturity and how nature has affected him.

Book 9-10, In these particular books Wordsworth share the experience of his of his France visit .

Book-11 In this section, poet share the crisis experience of his spiritual feeling.

Book12,13,14, In these three books  poet tells that how with his friend S.T. Coleridge and Dorothy started the Romantic age.

Therefore, all these books tell us  the development of mind of William Wordsworth of his careers.

Important facts about prelude

The Prelude is an autobiographical because it is about the poet’s self-consciousness and search for identity written chronologically. There was a time, when entire Europe was reeling under the nightmare of Napoleonic onslaughts, and everyone was looking for a stable identity and a solid value system.

The Prelude is classified as follow:

The Prelude as psychological because it explores the nature and function of the human mind.

The Prelude as didactic because it gives certain definite moral conclusion.

The Prelude as spiritual because it is about the infinite power and harmony of nature.   

The Prelude as intellectual as it is an attempt to define the role and potentiality of imagination.

Therefore, “The Prelude” is the most representative work not only of English romanticism, but also of European experience and its concomitant romantic idealism.

Critics view on The Prelude

M.H Abrams one of the most important critics comment on his work “Natural Supernaturalism” that the characteristic concepts and patterns of Wordsworth are not clearly displaced and reconstituted theology or else a secularized or of devotional experiences.

W.J. Harvey one of the critics says that the world of ‘The Prelude’ is not just the world of the mind communing with nature but it is also the worlds of the university, the metropolis and the arena of power and politics.

Stephen Gills a critic, says that memory is both the agent by which the poet expresses his past, so binding all the phases and past experiences, the poet retains the power of his being. And all his experiences haunt his adult with an inexplicable redemptive power.

The Prelude is a landmark in history of English literature, because it is a stupendous work by William Wordsworth.

Hyperion: A Fragment

(By John Keats)


Keats starts Hyperion in medias or in the middle of things. The war between the Titans and Olympians is over and the bewildered Titan chief, Saturn is setting alone. Thea the consort of the sun god, Hyperion leads Saturn to the other Titans.

Hyperion: A fragment, is an abandoned  epic poem of 19th century  written by English Romantic  poet John Keats. It majorly depicts the result of the war between two gods Titans and Olympians.

It is based on Titanomachia, (Titanomachia is a ten years war series in Greek mythology fought in Thessaly, consisting Titans (old gen) and Olympians (younger gen). This war is also known as the ‘war of the Titans’, battle of the Titans, ‘battle of the gods’ or ‘Titan war’.

Why did this war take place?

This war fought to decide which generation of gods would have dominion over the universe.

Keats wrote this epic poem between autumn 1818-1819 until the spring. During this period, he was also nursing his younger brother named Tom, who supposed to die from Tuberculosis in 1 December, 1818. Hyperion was published in 1820, Lamia, Isabella The Eve of St. Agnes.

Form of the poem

Hyperion is a fragment is written in blank verse and divided into two complete books and a third incomplete book. Book-I contains 357 lines, book-II has 391 lines and book-III leaves off in mid- sentence at line which only consist 136 lines.

What the title “Hyperion” suggests or indicates?

The title “Hyperion” indicates the name of its hero, the ancient Greek God of the Sun. Hyperion was one of the titans, the offspring off Coelus (the sky) and Tellus (the earth). Saturn was ruler of the Titans, overthrown by his three Olympian sons; Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto.

Theme of the poem

The theme of “Hyperion: a fragment” is power and revenge, from the very beginning till the end of the poem power and revenge is witnessed.

Power:- Olympians have the power as they have defeated Titans.

Revenge:-Titans want revenge as they have been defeated by the Olympians.

Hyperion as political allegory

Hyperion as political allegory, Titans represents the ancient regime or the political system before the revolution in France. They embody its notion of power and its values.

Like a king of an ancient regime, Saturn has ruled alone when he is overthrown, he sits apart from the other Titans. Keats wrote much against the danger of being separate from others. He thought of it as lethal and wrote of “The deadly feel of solitude”. While Apollo, by contrast wants the share the experience of others.

Saturn represents absolute, solitary power and is nothing without power. Once it is taken away, he reacts with despair, unable to think or act. He has been so blinded by power that he has not even suspected the possibility of revolt. Saturn also symbolizes the end of the values that are important to the Titan’s reign like ancient regime. The Titan reign is patriarchal. Similarly, Enceladus stands for war but who fought for own gain and did not care for the ordinary people, who were destroyed in it.

Keats thought on Hyperion

Keats gives importance to deities who are in some way marginal to the mythology. For instance, he celebrates Apollo as the god of music, harmony, beauty, knowledge and so on. Apollo was defied pretty late in history, the earlier Olympian sun god being Phoebus. Clymene is only a nymph and nymphs came low in the hierarchy of immortals but the she alone among the Titans is open to the new world and its knowledge. Therefore, all these figures represent sources of knowledge and vision in Keats’s poetry.

Important questions


Short notes on Dramaturgy

Dramaturgy is the medium of communication with the audience through performance. It is basically a connection and interaction between audience and dramatists. Dramaturgy is the feel of study by the dramatists. It is also known as drama.

Dramaturgy as a category starts early, it starts with the humanwhen self interaction begin almost