Daddy poem summary

By Sylvia Plath

It is said that, it is the absence of her father that shapes much of Plath’s work as her poems record her reaction to her irreparable personal loss. There is a sense of shock, betrayal and refusal which brings her to the reality of death. Therefore, there are few crucial biographical facts which cast their shadow on her work; the premature death of her father, the separation from her husband (Ted Hughes) and her suicide attempts.  


‘Daddy’ is a confessional poem written by one of the bold American writer Sylvia Plath in 1963. Daddy poem was published by her husband Ted Hughes after her death in 1965, posthumously in the collection of Ariel.

Majorly the poem Daddy is based on personal experience by the poet Sylvia Plath, which deals with her own grief, betrayal and refusal of a daughter on deceased father Otto Plath, who died leaving her daughter in a very young age of eight.


‘Daddy’ has the theme of ‘Electra complex’, grief on loss of a father, ambivalence and history of world like (Nazi-Jewish).


The tone of the poem is abrasive, discordant and betrayal. It is in a disturbing tone of a daughter on the father’s death.

Literary Device

In ‘Daddy’ the poet illustrates her feelings of anger and resentment towards her father and husband through most vivid poetic devices like; metaphor, imagery, rhyme and simile etc. There is no rhyme scheme only rhyme used by Plath at the end i.e. blue-you, true-Jew.  The poem consists of 16 stanzas and written in present tense, though the poet while referringpast memories switches past tense.


Daddy is a confessional yet controversial poem by Plath. The poet begins the poem by addressing the circumstances in which she lives. She describes her father as a ‘Nazi’ (a dictorial) a giant statue, a confining shoe and a vampire. The poet uses ‘Electra complex’ borrowed from Greek mythology. It can be noted that she evokes the Electra myth to describe the relationship between herself and her father.

There are three facts which majorly highlighted by the poet’s psychological trauma i.e. (I) deliberate effort to go beyond the self by employing and Greek myth (II) the poet took reference to describe her father from world history (the Nazi-Jew) animosity and (III) the poet talks about the existence of opposing forces within one’s psyche. For instance; the good and bad, the gentle and the harsh, and the Jew and Nazi.

In the poem ‘Daddy’, the absence of her father grows like a tree as it grows to the towering height of a colossus, sometimes seen as a “Man in Black”, or as a crucial tyrant, thus he is not just a benevolent father- figure, but also a male violent force of portending doom and destruction. The poet’s attitude towards this colossus is an ambiguous one. In the first place, because the father, by dying has deserted his child and hence there is a resentment against him. Such are the dichotomous feelings that Plath expresses in relation to her father through the colossus image in “Daddy”.

Therefore, according to Plath, it is an exorcism of the demons that haunt her, this poem is a therapeutic and has a cathartic effect. It concisely speaking of the two conflicting strains within the girl which marry and paralyze each other, Plath through ‘Daddy’ deals with the influence of heredity on an individual as these psychological tensions are hereditary, a legacy from the Electra like girl’s who has mixed parental background from Nazi and Jewish.

Being a victim of such clashing characteristics, often the opposing forces within the self, do not owe their origin to family history but they are ingrained in human nature. However, in ‘Daddy’ the storm and curse against one who has betrayed the persona of the poet could only be uttered by one who cares, one who has loved deeply and truly and who has been hurt because her love has come to nothing. Such are the ambivalent feelings that through “Daddy” the poet expresses against dead father.

Therefore, it is her father whose memory holds her in thrall and which must be shaken off if the protagonist breath freely again.

Dr. Faustus character highlights

By Christopher Marlowe

Dr. Faustus is a popular novel published in 1604, by one of the biggest playwrights of Elizabethan Age after Shakespeare.

In this article I am going to highlights some of the major characters of Dr. Faustus

Major Character: Dr. Faustus, Mephastophilis, chorus, old man, good angel, evil angel, Lucifer, Wagner clown, Robin, Rafe, Valdes and Cornelius, Horse courser, the scholars, the pope, emperor Charles V, knight, Bruno, Duke, of Vanholt, Martino and Fredrick.

Character introduction

Dr. Faustus:- The main character or protagonist  is Dr. Faustus, who is a brilliant 16th century scholar form Wittenberg, Germany. His ambition for knowledge, wealth and worldly makes him to pay the ultimate price of his soul to lucifer in exchange for supernatural powers.

Faustus’s initial tragic grandeur is dimension by the fact he never seems completely sure of his  decision to forfeit his soul and constantly wavers about whether or not to repent. His ambition is admirable and initially awesome, yet he ultimately lacks a certain inner strength. He is unable to embrace his dark path wholeheartedly but is also unwilling to admit his mistake.

Mephastophilis:- A Devil whom Faustus summons with his initial magical expression meant Mephistopheles ‘s motivation are ambiguous on the hand, his oft-expressed goal is to catch Faustus soul and carry it off to hell; on the other hand he actively attempts to dissuade Faustus from making a deal with lucifer by warning him about the horrors of hell Mephistopheles hills is with- mately as tragic figure as Faustus, with his moving regretful accounts of what the devils have last in their eternal separation from god and his repeated reflection on the pain that comes with damnation.

Chorus:- A character who stand outside the story, providing narration and come entry. The chorus was customary in Greek tragedy.

Old Man:- An enigmatic figure who appears in the final scene. The old man urges Faustus to repent and to ask god of for mercy. He seems to replace the good and evil angels who in the first scene they to influence Faustus’s behavior.

Good Angel:- A spirit that urges Faustus to repent for his pact with lucifer and return to good angel with the old man and the bad angel, the good angel represents in many ways Faustus omniscience and divided will b/w good and evil.

Evil angel:- A spirit that serves as the counterpart to the good angel and provides Faustus with reasons not to repent for sins against god the evil angel represents the evil half of Faustus’s conscience.

Lucifer: The prince of devils, the ruler of hell, and Mephastophilis masters.

Clown:- Clown, who becomes wagon’s servant. The clown’s antic provides comic relief, he is a ridiculous character, and his absurd behavior initially contrasts with Faustus’s grandeur and as the play goes on Faustus’s behaviors comes to resemble that of the clown.

Robin:- An ostler or innkeeper who like the clown provides a comic contrast to Faustus. Robin and his friend Rafe learn some basic conjuring, demonstrating that even the least scholarly can passes skill in magic. Marlowe includes Robin and Rafe to illustrate Faustus’s degradation as he submits to simple trickery such as theirs.

Rafe:- An Ostler and a friend of Robin who appears in the play as Dick.

Valdes and Cornelius:- Tow friends of Faustus, both are magicians, who teach him (Faustus) the art of black magic.

Horse or Courser:- A horse trader who buys a horse from Faustus, which vanishes after the horse rides on it into the water leading, him to seek revenge.

The scholars:- Faustus’s colleagues at the university of Wittenberg, loyal to Faustus. They appear at the beginning and at the end of the play.  

The Pope:- The head of the Roman Catholic church and a powerful political figure in the Europe of Faustus’s day. The pope serves as both a source of amusement for the play’s protestants audience and a symbol of the religions faith that Faustus has rejected.

Emperor Charles V:- The most powerful monarch in Europe, whose court Faustus visits.

Knight: A German nobleman at the emperor, s court.

Bruno: A candidate for the papacy, supported by the emperor. He is captured by the Pope and freed by Faustus.

Duke of Vanholt:- A German nobleman whom Faustus visits.

Martino and Fredrick:- Friends of Benrolio, who reluctantly join his attempt to kill Faustus.

The Lamb poem Summary

(Song of innocence and experience)

About the poem

‘The Lamb’ is a poem from collection of “song of innocence” written and published by William Blake in 1789. It is a lyrical poem that describe innocence of a child and refers to the mystery of creation.

Theme of the poem

The theme of the poem is based on religion, innocence and morality, throughout the poem we can see the continuous appreciation for god and what he has created, ‘The Lamb’, or Christ, should be a source of celebration for all who see or hear him its innocence is the most important feature in the poem.

Forms of the poem

The poem “The Lamb” has two stanzas, containing each with five rhymes couplet. The rhymes are followed as AA BB CC DD, and the end word of each line of stanza makes them melodious, for example delight-bright, voice-rejoice, feed-meek, the poem is written in trochaic meter.

Tone of the poem

The poem has joyful and truthful tone by which an image of a child (speaker) talks directly to the lamb.

Summary and Explanation

In the first stanza of ten lines, poet describe how a little innocent child sees a lamb and asks who made you, also the little lamb who has been blessed with life and with the capacity to feed by the stream and over the meadow. It has been endowed with bright and soft wool which makes cloth also its voice is so tender and fills the valley with joy, who is the creator of all.

The innocent child repeatedly asks the little lamb about its creator, also he says that don’t you know who has created you. This question repeatedly asks by the child throughout the first stanza. The child also wants to know who glow his life, who feed him while living along the river over the meadow. He also curiously wants to know from the lamb, who supplied him with a pleasant body cover (wool) which is soft and shinning and used to make clothes.

The child also asks the lamb, who gave him such a delicate bleating voice, which resounds a happy note in the surrounding valleys. The first stanza completely marked by child’s innocent.

In the second stanza, there is an identification of the lamb, Christ and the child. The lamb identified as Christ, because he is meek and mild like lamb. Christ was also a child when he first appeared on this earth as the son of god. Therefore, the following lines describes that, “He become a little child, “I a child thou lamb “. The child in this poem speaks to the lamb as if the lamb were another child and could respond to what is being said. The child shows his deep joy in the company of the lamb who is just like him, meek and mild. Therefore, the poem conveys the purity and innocent of child and the affections that he feels for the little creature i.e. the lamb.

The third and last stanza of the poem, the poet depicts the image of Christ as a child and in this, the lamb, the child himself proceeds to answer the questions he has asked in the first stanza. The child says that the person who has created the lamb and gives him many privileged is himself (by name of the lamb) it is Jesus Christ who Calls himself a lamb. Jesus Christ is meek (submissive ) and mild (soft natured) and he become child for the sake of mankind. That simply means, the narrator is a child, he is a lamb and they both are called by Christ’s name. The poem is in the from of dialogue and questions answers where its first stanza is descriptive and rural, while the second focuses on abstract spirulina matters and consists of analogy and explanation.

The lamb is the William Blake’s one of the best-known poems from his collection and regarded as one of the great lyrics of English poetry.

Prothalamion summary

By Edmund Spenser

‘Pro’, means “prior to”,  the term Prothalamion is noted Spenserian neologism, invented to signify a preliminary nuptial song which is published in 1596.

About the poem

The prothalamion poem is a spousal verse written by Spenser on the occasion of the wedding of Elizabeth and Catherine Somerset (daughters of Edward Somerset) The Earl of Worcester.

The wedding was Formalized at the Strand in London, in Essex house. This poem is vastly different from Spenser’s own nuptial song, for ex; where ‘Epithalamion’ is exuberantly sensual and consistent throughout its length and its themes, the ‘Prothalamion’ is shorter, more pensive, and almost sedate in its pace. The poem is written in a conventional form of a marriage song.

Uses of devices

The poem has a pastoral setting, specifically here, the bank of the river Thames, also the poet employes a couplet at the end of the first stanza that is reworked into a refrain at the end of each stanza. And at the end of the stanza like ‘Epithalamion’, Prothalamion too invokes pagan god, to bless the couple and guard them from ills.

Theme of the poem

The theme is a song in the honor of the marriage of lady Elizabeth and Catherine Somerset. Its center theme is the celebration around the river Thames, which is also a key symbol and setting. Images and ideas of beauty surrounds the Thames such as nymphs gathering flowers for the crown to sisters and natural world and the fragility of perfection is also used as one of the themes in the poem.


The first stanza begins with the descriptions of the river Thames. Poet was frustrated with the job at the court and all he wanted is some mental peace. Therefore, the environment near river Thames is very soothing. There are flowers, cool breeze, birds. So, the poet requests the river to flow softly until he ends the song.

In the second stanza, poet sees a group of nymphs along the banks of the river. These nymphs are the symbol of purity. They are beautiful, they prepared bouquet of flowers with prime roses, white lilies, red roses, tulips, violets and daisies.

In third stanza, Spenser introduced the swans, which swim across the river, he compares the two swans with Jupiter who disguised as a swan to win his love Lida. These swans are shinier than Lida. The river Thames instruct its water not to dirt the sacred wings of the swans. Here, poet not uses swans as symbol of purity but they are chastity.

Stanza fourth describes that the nymphs are astonished when they saw these swans swimming across the river. Swans are usually assigned to drawing the chariot of venues, (the goddess of love). In this stanza poet also focuses his attention to white lilies, as these are the symbol of virginity of the nymphs.

In the fifth stanza, Nymphs prepare the bouquet of flowers which looks very beautiful. These Nymphs are excited for the upcoming wedding. So, they prepare a wedding songs, with all the fragrance of flowers themes, which exactly looked like Peneus. The river of ancient fame, flowing along Thipe and the Thessalian valley.

In the sixth stanza, the songs of the Nymphs are the mesmerizing effect. Spenser wishes the couple to live forever. He also prays to cupid and venues to bless the newly wedded couples, to have kids a sign of dignity.

In the seventh stanza, the poet describes that the rivers are happy, and the whole environment is celebrating the wedding of both the couple.

Wedding starts at London and poet point every detail of the wedding, the mansion the atmosphere in stanza.

In the eighth stanza, the poet informs that wedding has begun in London and poet paints every detail of the wedding like; the mansion, the atmosphere etc.

In the nineth stanza, the poet describes about the place where wedding ceremony is being performed in the mighty castle of the Earl of Essex. And he (the poet) served as a danger to foreign countries, he is brave man, so here poet celebrates with his poem.

The final stanza, in which the Earl of Essex walked towards the river, he is accompanied by the two grooms. They are look like the twins of Jupiter namely Castor and Pollux. Both the grooms hold the hands of their brides and wedding begins.

Subscribe to get access

Read more of this content when you subscribe today.

Amoretti summary

By Edmund Spenser

The objective of this poem is to study the Amoretti by Spenser, and to consider how he makes use of the sonnet form to convey his emotions and thoughts.

About the poem

‘Amoretti’ sonnet is a book by Edmund Spencer written in 16th century and published in 1595, in London by William Pansonby. ‘Amoretti’ means “little loves” or “little cupids”.

Amoretti was printed as part of volume entitled, Amoretti and Epithalamion. This volume included the sequence of 89 sonnets, along with a series of short poems called Anacreontics and Epithalamion.

Amoretti sonnet is about a marriage celebration of Edmund Spenser. It is written in Petrarchan sonnet, a popular form of poet in Renaissance period.

Amoretti word has been derived from Latin word ‘amor’ which means “l love”, In Amoretti, Spenser addresses his second wife Elizabeth Boyle (a young Anglo- Irish woman). He showcases the courtship and eventful marriage to Elizabeth Boyle, which takes place on 11 June 1594.

Form of the poem

The poem is based on Petrarchan model of love in which poet compares his beloved to heavenly object, for example; moon, fairy, stars, etc. The rhyming scheme of this poem is ABAB BCBC CDCD EE. The poem centers around the immortality of spiritual love and the temporality of physical love.

Theme of the poem

Spenser’s sonnet deals largely with the emotions of love, which celebrates the happiness of love, shared between two people (Spenser and Elizabeth), as well as celebrating divine love. The celebration of successful love is largely a deviation from the typical themes.

Summary and Analysis

In the first session, the poet proclaims his deep love for his beloved by writing her name on the sand at the sea shores, only to see the waves wash it away, he repeats it in vain.  

In the second session, the poet presents a dialogue where his beloved confronts him on what she calls a vain act pointing out that her cannot immortalize his love for her as they have to eventually die someday.

In the third session, the responds to her statement confidently, claiming that he can immortalize her virtues and his love for her in his poetry where will stay forever.

In the final part, the poet asserts that the gross, insignificant, sorted things might be the part of a transient world but his love for his beloved transcends all boundaries encompassing death and is immortalized through verse in the poem.

Thus, sonnet 75 is a unique form by the virtues of its dramatic structure, also it is an excellent blend of lyric and dramatic elements.

In Amoretti, Spenser has not only talked about his marriage but give a glance about his break-up with his first wife.

Being so much popular, the poem Amoretti is not much appreciated and overlooked by critics, who sees it as inferior to other major Renaissance sonnets sequence in Petrarchan tradition. Also, this sonnet has been overshadowed by Spenser’s other notable work, like “The Faeri Queen”, which is the most popular work by him. It is an epic allegorical masterpiece of Renaissance period.

C.S. Lewis one of the most important 20th century Spenser’s scholar said that Spenser was not one of the great sonneteer. However, other critics consider Spenser’s sonnets to be innovative and to express a range of tone of emotions and more skillful and subtle.

Many critics analyzed his overworking of old themes, they saw Spenser as less original an unimportant sonneteer in compare to his contemporaries like; Philip Sydney (one of the renown writers of Renaissance period).

Spenser borrows specific images and metaphors, including those that portray the beloved or loved itself as cruel tormenter. It also breaks with the conventional love poetry in many ways, for example; In most sonnet sequences like in Petrarchan tradition, the speaker yearns for a lover who is sexually unavailable. Not only this but there is a conflict between spiritual and physical love, but the subject is already married and it is an adulterous love.

Therefore, Spenser through ‘Amoretti’ has dedicated an entire sequence to a woman he could honorably coin. Elizabeth Boyle is an unmarried woman and their love affair eventually ended in marriage.